A bilateral trade agreement gives privileged trade status between two nations. By giving them access to each other`s markets, they increase trade and economic growth. The terms of the agreement harmonize commercial activity and a level playing field. Consumers in the country also benefit from lower costs. You can get exotic fruits and vegetables that can become too expensive without the agreement. The WTO is a negotiating forum on the liberalization of world trade. The EU negotiates within the WTO on behalf of all EU countries. This study provided quantitative evidence that, in most cases, BTAs lead to a strengthening of TL between the partners concerned in the first years after the agreement came into force. This finding further reinforces the conclusions drawn from previous studies on direct trade flows in the gravity model. However, our analysis goes beyond these studies by taking into account indirect effects, which are also transmitted through cross-sector input-exit connections. A positive impact index of the BTA may indicate that one of the main objectives of the negotiation process for the country concerned was to facilitate access to the partner`s internal market.
The origins of such a positive index can then be twofold: on the one hand, the reduction of trade barriers allows to identify new market opportunities that lead to an increase in trade volumes between the contracting parties above average. On the other hand, a positive impact index of the BTA will be achieved if existing trade relations are replaced for the benefit of the contractor and at the expense of a third party. In order to quantify and identify the respective impact of trade production and diversification, it is necessary to carry out in-depth studies on trade relations between different countries, but beyond the scope of this work. However, we also identified BTAs with a non-positive BTA impact index. In these cases, the assumption that a BTA has a negative effect on these third parties is less likely. On the other hand, countries with a negative impact on NTOs could either pursue other strategic objectives than simply boost bilateral trade with their partners, or simply fail to achieve their initial objectives in implementing the ATO. 18. Serrano A, Boguna M. Topology of Global Web Trade. Phys Rev E. (2003) 68:015101.
doi: 10.1103/PhysRevE.68.015101 Bilateral trade was very popular in Finnish business circles, as it allowed very large orders to be made, with less stringent requirements of refinement or quality when compared with Western markets. The Soviet side was motivated to participate in clearing trading because the agreement essentially offered cheap credit. The option was to sell commitments on the international market and pay interest in hard currency. Capital, such as icebreakers, railway cars or consumer goods, could be purchased in Finland, and costs would simply become a clearing account deficit, which would ultimately be repaid in the form of crude oil or orders such as nuclear power plants (Loviisa I and II). In addition to creating a U.S. commodity market, expansion has helped spread the mantra of trade liberalization and promote open borders to trade. However, bilateral trade agreements can distort a country`s markets when large multinationals, with considerable capital and resources to operate on a large scale, enter a market dominated by smaller players. As a result, they may have to close their stores if they compete. It is important that the effectiveness of the BtA is also determined by the extent and extent of the agreed commitments [12, 13].