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Un Status Of Forces Agreement

A Forces Agreement (SOFA) is an agreement between a host country and a foreign nation that deploys armed forces in that country. SOFAs are often part of a comprehensive security agreement with other types of military agreements. A SOFA is not a safety device; it establishes the rights and privileges of foreign personnel who set up in a host country to support the strengthening of security measures. [1] Under international law, a status-of-force agreement differs from military occupation. An agreement on visiting forces is similar to an agreement on the status of troops, except that the former only temporarily cover troops that are not stationed there. While the U.S. military has the largest foreign presence and therefore represents the largest number of SOFAs, Britain, France, Australia, Germany,[2] Italy, Russia, Spain, and many other nations also deploy armed forces abroad and negotiate SOFAs with their host countries. In the past, the Soviet Union had SOFAs with most of its satellite states. While most U.S.

SOAs are public, some remain secret. [3] A SOFA should clarify the conditions under which the foreign army can operate. As a rule, purely military and operational matters, such as the location of bases and access to facilities, are covered by separate agreements. A SOFA focuses more on legal issues related to military persons and property. This may include issues such as entry and exit into the country, tax obligations, postal services or the conditions of employment of nationals of the host country, but the most controversial issues are civil and criminal justice on bases and personnel. For civil cases, SOFAs provide for how civilian damages caused by the armed forces are identified and paid. Criminal problems vary, but the typical provision in U.S. SOFAs is that U.S. courts have jurisdiction over crimes committed either by a soldier against another soldier or by a soldier as part of his or her military duty, but the host country retains jurisdiction over other crimes. [4] The political issue of SOFAs is complicated by the fact that many host countries have mixed feelings towards foreign bases on their soil and that calls to renegotiate sofa are often accompanied by calls for foreign troops. While the United States and host countries generally agree on what a crime is, many U.S.

observers believe that the host country`s justice systems give defendants much weaker protection than the United States and that the courts of the host country may be subject to popular pressure to render a guilty verdict; In addition, U.S. soldiers who have been sent abroad should not be forced to give up the rights conferred on them by the Bill of Rights. On the other hand, observers from the host country, who have no local equivalent to the Bill of Rights, often feel that it is an unrelated excuse to demand special treatment and resembles the extraterritorial agreements demanded by Western countries during colonialism. . . .

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